KEEN 1007976 Milwaukee 6" (Steel Toe) 10D Men's Work Boot SZ 10D Toe) d35844

KEEN 1007976 Milwaukee 6

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Style: Safety Boots
Features: Steel Toe Product Line: McRae
Color: Brown Material: Leather
Brand: McRae
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

KEEN 1007976 Milwaukee 6" (Steel Toe) 10D Men's Work Boot SZ 10D Toe) d35844

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Fashion Mens Round Toe Casual Shoes New Winter Warm Mid Calf Boots Snow Outwear,Snow Master Canada Winter / Duck Hunting Farm Boots Size US 10 M EUC Felt LinerKenneth Cole Men’s Ankle Boots Blue Leather Dress Reaction Sz-8M New York,Vintage High Quality Supple Black Leather Side Zip Beatle Boots Men's Sz. 11.5 DMr/Ms Portwest Steelite Lusun Safety Trainer fw34 online sale Year-end sale classic style,ART COMPANY Personal Boots Suede Women's Size 8Kodiak K4 Trail-10 Composite Toe Reflective Men's Black/Lime Hiking Boots 10.5M,Men's Vikings Irving High Brown/Black Boots Size 11 Brand New!,Lacrosse Outpost II Waterproof Boots w/ Removable Foam Liner Men's Size 7,Crocs Mens Walu Chukka Moc Toe Ankle Boot Shoes, Espresso/Stucco, US 13,856 Cole Haan Colton Copper/Peacoat Nubuck Leather Chukka Boots Men's Sz 10.5 M,Mens British Low Top Shoes Winter Fur Lining Snow Boots Side Zip Sneaker BootsSidi Motorcycle Motorbike Echt Inner Boot Soles Pair (2) - Grey,KAMIK ALBORG Brown Waterproof Cold Weather Waterproof Winter Snow Boots Men Sz 9,PRE-OWNED men's VINTAGE ARIETE brown leather boots - size 10 - IDEAL ZIPPER,hilton allan black ostrich bootsrich boots 9D,Wellco Sz 10.0 R Safety Navy Flight Deck Steel Toe Boots Black Vibram Style 1003,Classic Mens Military Leather Zip Knee thigh highs Boots Riding Long Punk Shoes,Dakota 10" CTCP Oil Transitional Men's Black Boot 7M,Vasque Sundowner 7936 Classic Brown Leather Hiking Boots Skywalk Soles US 6M/UK5Cole Haan Men's US 13 Boots Black Leather Ankle,BRAHMA Walker 2560174 Work Hiking Steel Toe Boots Shoes Taupe US Size 8.5,CUSTOM LEATHERCRAFT R20010 Rubber Slush Overshoe Boot (R20010-G2-WH08*A),Men Korean Pointed Toe Buckle Leather High Top dress Ankle Short Boots ShoesHOT Mens Fashion Safety Shoes Steel Toe Hiking Climbing Boots Breathable Shoes 1,Olathe Boot Company Men's Western Boots Size 6.5C,Vintage Nike Air ACG Hiking Boots Brown Leather Mens 7 Womens 8 950406-ID,Winter Tube Thick Bottom Increased Cotton Non Slip Warm Muffin Velvet Snow Boot,Size 5 Dr Martens Brown Leather Ankle Boots Men's 9793 AW004 PC03C,Dakota 8'' Cobra Men's Dark Brown Work Boots 11 WIDE,