Nike Hyperdunk Red Red Red Size 14 e0235c

Nike Hyperdunk Red Red Red Size 14 e0235c
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Nike Hyperdunk Red Red Red Size 14 e0235c

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging

Published July 31, 2017
Nike Revolution 3 University Red/Metallic Silver 819301-600 Men's SZ 9.5 4E,New Men's Nike Free Trainer 5.0 V6 Size 14 Game Royal White Volt Training Shoes,NIKE Air Max Run Lite 4 Running Low Cut Sneakers Shoes US 11.5 M NWOBNike SB Check Black Gum Size For Men's New In Box 843896 009,Nike Air Force 1 Low CMFT PRM PRINTS SHOES 573974 MENS 12 GATOR SAFARI CORK PONY,NEW Nike Men's Hypervenom Phinish FG Football Cleats Size 7 NIBNIKE SB BLAZER ZOOM LOW SZ: US MEN'S 10.5 RETAIL: $75.00,Nike Men's Woodside II Waterproof Duck Boots GG8 Black 525393-090 Size 8,Nike Lunar Magista II FK FC Men's Fashion Sneakers [876385 400] size 10,Nike Lunar Fingertrap TR Training Shoes Sz 10.5 Black/White Nike 898066 001,Mens Nike Air Max 1 SE Satin Pack Blue Nebula Black Mint Igloo AO1021-400 9.5,Nike Vapor Untouchable Pro Football Cleats Black Gold White SZ ( 925423-720 )Nike Air Force 1 Low QS Sz 14 White Platinum Classic 488298-154 NSW $90,NIB Nike Force Savage Pro D Football Cleats 902677 010 Black White Size 11,NIKE Men's Marquee Leather black dark grey white Us sizes 8.5 to 12.0 580537 001,nike tennis classic CS mens trainers 683613 104 sneakers shoes,Nike Air Ken Griffey Max GD 2 II 1 Retro 2009 Black Red jordan mens Size 5.5,NIKE ZOOM ROOKIE 472688-400 Size 7.5 Retail $200MENS NIKE KOBE A.D. BASKETBALL SHOES /SIZE 10.5 / BLACK-SAIL GUM/ NIKE KOBE A.D.,NEW NIKE Zoom Hyperquickness Sneakers Men's 12 M Black & White Shoes 749883-100Nike Men's Air Zoom Mariah Flyknit Racer 918264-004 Size: 10.5,NEW NIKE SB MENS ZOOM STEFAN JANOSKI CANVAS RED & WHITE SHOESMen's Nike Kyrie 2 Size 17 (819583 105) No Box Top,Nike Lunarepic Low Flyknit Men's Running Shoe 843764 005 Size 9.5,NIKE AIR MAX FURY Shoes Black / Black Gym Red AA5739 006 Men’s Size 11NIKE NEW MENS LUNAR HYPERREV LOW EXT BASKETBALL SHOES 802557-003 SIZE 12 $120,New Nike Roshe LD-1000 QS Mens 13,Air Jordan Retro 6 OreosNike Air Max Modern Flyknit Mens Size 10 Running Shoes 876066 401 Photo Blue,Nike Air Max Full Ride Mens Training Trainers US 10 REF 5010,