New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805

New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: Unbranded
US Shoe Size (Men's): 6.5-10 Style: Loafers & Slip Ons
Material: Synthetic
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

New Mens casual comfort line oxford breathable sole Slip on loafer breathable oxford driving shoes 249805

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Mens round toe flat heel pure color solf sole shoes driving shoes chic fashion,Lacoste Men’s Tan/Brown Leather Slip On Deck Boat Shoes Size 6.5,Mens Retro Slip On Moccasins Flats Pumps Driving Loafers Casual Shoes 3Colors sz,Man's/Woman's Mauri All-Over Cognac Alligator Sneakers 8731/2 Charming design comfortability Varioussize 8 wide Men's BORN b.o.c. slip on loafer brown leather shoes 8 W Merton,Unused Nike Supreme Air Force 1 Mid '07 Aq8017-001 (134336,Aldo Leather Driver Dress Shoes Brown Casual Slip On Mens 8,FADED GLORY SLIP ON LOAFERS SIZE 10.5 WITH MEMORY FOAM INSOLES BROWN/GRAY EUC,SKECHERS SLIP ON SHOES LOAFERS MENS SIZE 9.5,Sperry Top Sider Harbor Wing Tip Shoes Men's Size 8.5 Suede Canvas,ASICS GEL SYNTHESIS - H300L MEN SHOES,Mens Comfort Casual Breathable Shoes Pull On Flat Lazy Loafers Size 39-46 Normal,Clarks Mens Size 8.5 Black Cloud Stepper Votta Free Slip On Casual Comfort ShoesJohnston & Murphy SHULER BICYCLEBlack Pebbled Sheepskin Split Toe Shoe Men 16 E7CLARKS Escalade Step Brown Sz 10.5 M Men Slip-On Loafers,Dr Martens 11233 Brown Leather Slip On Loafer Shoes Size 10M,Stylish Casual Driving Moccasins Slip On Loafers Mens Flats Soft Shoes US 5.5-10Cole Haan Men's 11.5 M Brown Leather Casual Slip On Driving Loafer Shoes,Mens Margaritaville Soles of The Tropics Faux Brown Leather Slide Sandals Size 9,Gentlemen/Ladies Paraboot Parabutsu Loafers Leather Shoes (78337 We have won praise from our customers. Carefully selected materials Tide shoes list,Off-White Low-Cut Sneakers 4118Ssvulc Top Canvas Unused Shoes (76744,Banana Republic Brown Leather Brogue Wingtip Dress Oxfords Shoes Mens 9 DMens Slip On Crocodile Pattern Casual Round Toe Tassels Driving Dress Shoes,Johnston and Murphy Mens Size 9 Chukka Brown Dress Formal Business Suit Italy,Mens vintage Mexican Chaac Woven Leather Oxford Loafer Boat shoe 9,STEEPLE GATE MADE IN ITALY MENS BROWN SHOES SIZE 8 1/2 D,Lehigh MENS 7 WOMENS 9 Electrical Hazard Safety Steel Toe Work Boots NEWPolo Ralph Lauren Bolingbrook Black Canvas Men's 8D Shoes Sneakers,Ralph Lauren Polo Vaughn Black Leather Sneakers Boat Shoes 10.5,GRAVIS SHOES WOMENS SIERRA GREY HERRINGBONE SKATE SURF FOOTWEAR KINGPIN STORE,