Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES "2688N" Easy BLACK to use New products in 2018 Don't worry when shopping e672cb

Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Color: Black
Material: Leather Brand: TOTECTORS
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Gentleman/Lady MENS BLACK Easy TOTECTORS SAFETY SHOES "2688N" Easy BLACK to use New products in 2018 Don't worry when shopping e672cb

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
EUC Men's SAS Burgundy Brown Leather Loafers Sz 9 WIOB Dr. Martens Brown Leather Zoe 5 Eye Shoes Sz 7,Edward Green Wing Chip Dress Shoes Leather 37785 (41702Chinese Style Mens Slip On Low Top Embroidery Retro Canvas Flats Loafers Shoes,Calvin Klein Oxford Men size 9 Gray,Alfani Proud Bike Toe Oxford Brown Men's 10 M US,STANCO *New Arrivals*Top Leather Men's Loafer/Shoes Gommini/Mocassini Blue 12 US,Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 Size 10 Blue Tint Grey Red Same Day Shipping DS B37571Sperry Top Sider Men's A/O Color wash Navy Boat Shoe 10.5M,NEW LEVI'S MEN'S LIGHTWEIGHT COMFORTABLE CASUAL AFFORDABLE FASHIONABLE SNEAKER'S,Men's Size 11 Narrow or 10.5 reg Black Mesh Pleasure Island Casual Loafers NIBPropet M4070 Villager BLACK Pebbled Leather Walking Oxfords Men Size 16 XX (5E),Dr Scholls Men's Slip On Shoes Tan Leather Shoes 42J Double Air Pillow 10D EUC,Keen Mens Brown Pull Tightener Hiking Outdoor Shoes DESCRIPTION,Chaps Dockers Pro Style Shoes Men's 9.5 Brown Leather LoafersRobert Wayne Mens Palm Slip On Casual Loafer Shoes, Brown, US 9.5,Iron Fist Winston American Traditional Tattoo Art Mens Canvas Sneakers Shoes Tan,Stylish Me Men's Gray Chakka Shoes Crepe Soles Size 43US,New Mens Skechers Arcade Vontae Shoe Style 51559 Black 179J dr,Bulldogs Art BDA Tribal Wave NIB Shoes Grey Blue Size 8MARITED wooden clogs mens womens all sizes Natural Product Handmade,Man/Woman New Dr. Martens Watch Clever and practical Comfortable touch List of explosions,Generra Collection Mens Loafers Shoes Size 8.5M Brown Woven Leather TasseledStreetcars Top grain Brown Leather uppers Loafers Men's 8.5 M EUC,Sperry Top Siders Size 13 Mens Boat Shoes Striper Saltwater Washed Canvas Gray,Sperry Top Sider Canvas Boat Shoe- Deck Casual Fashion Sneakers Men's 13 M Taupe,Rockport Burgundy Leather Moc Toe Casual Penny Loafer Shoes Men's Size 8 M,LL BEAN Traveler Leather Thick Sole Moccasins Loafers House Shoes Mens 9,Navy Blue Coated Canvas POLO RALPH LAUREN Shoes LANDEN Size 9 1/2 Boat Shoe,CANVAS LIGHTWEIGHT COMFORTABLE FLAT COTTON BLACK / WHITE SHOES SIZE 40-46,