Summer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338d

Summer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338dSummer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338d

Item specifics

Condition:
New without box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) that is not in original packaging or ... Read moreabout the condition
Material: Breathable mesh
Style: Fashion Sneakers Fast Fulfillment: YES
Pattern: Summer Modified Item: No
Brand: CHAO RAN
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Summer Breathable Mens Driving Slip Mesh on Loafers Leather Shoes Mesh Slip Casual Shoes 7f338d

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
SPERRY Black & Brown Leather Buckle Strap Kiltie Slip On Loafers Men's Sz. 11MMens Casual Faux Leather Moccasins Driving Slip On Loafers Flat Office Shoes SzHUSH PUPPIES Ambient Oxford -Brn-Size 14M NIB!65720 Brown Skechers shoes Men Memory Foam Casual Comfort Oxford Soft Woven Knit,Casual Men's Canvas Shoes Slip Ons Low Top Round Toe Breathable Loafers Shoes,Weejuns Bass Marietta II Brown Leather Tassel Moccasins Loafers Shoes Size 9W,Mens Faux Suede Flats Casual Loafers Driving Moccasins Slip On Shoes Comfort Sz,BROWN COLUMBIA MEN LEATHER Shoes Sz. 7 US , 40 EUR,Clarks Structured Mens Black Oxford Shoes Dress Soft Leather Black Size 10,CROFT & BARROW RANDY-GREY ORTHOLITE CASUAL LOAFER SIZE 12 NEW IN BOX WITH TAGS,Men's 2018 Personality Casual Slip On Flat Loafers Leather Shoes Sneakers BoradsDoc Dr Martens 10940 Mens US 8 Brown Leather Air Wair Chunky 6 Eye OxfordsMen's Giovanni Slip-On Loafers Casual Formal Dress Moccasin Work Wedding M788-20Mens STEVE MADDEN Landon Black Leather Driving Moccasin Slip Ons Shoes Sz 9.5Casual Men Comfy Low Top Loafers Slip On Driving Boat Shoes Gommino Shoes Hot,I16 To Boot New York Alek Space Blue Suede Penny Loafer Shoes Mens Size 8 M,Kenneth Cole REACTION Men's High Road Fashion Sneaker,Hytest Mens Black Safety Work Boots Size 12,**Merrell Slip On Casual Shoes, Men's Size 7.5, BlackShop6 Fashion Mens Women Canvas Flats Slip On Casual Shoes Sneaker Cotton Shoes,Vintage Bass Saddles & Bucs Cinnamon Jacob Men's Saddles Size 9M brown,Rockport Prowalker Athletic Walking Shoe Beige Mens Size 11.5 Wide,2018 Men Minimalism Driving Loafers Suede Leather Moccasins Slip Penny Shoes lot,Men Rockport Beige Light Brown Leather Super Comfortable Shoes Size 11 M,2017 New Fashion Men's Breathable Sneaker Sport Running Casual Canvas ShoesDS Work Men's Manager Casual Work Shoe Black Size 10.5WEspadrilles Slip Recistance Shoes size 10 -11,Kenneth Cole Unlisted Design 30121 Mens Black Casual Dress Oxfords Shoes,Jimmy Choo Sneakers Star Studded 41 432 (55681,Vero Cuoio Rock & Republic Shoes Camo Sneakers Green Mens Size 10.5 Orange