Men/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fc

Men/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fcMen/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fcMen/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fcMen/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fcMen/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fcMen/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fc

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: Reebok
Style: Shoes
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Men/Women Reebok CL Explosive Nylon Sneaker Best-selling worldwide Primary quality Explosive CL good goods 21f1fc

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Gentlemen/Ladies DC Men's Wage Skate Shoe Customer first Wholesale trade Valuable boutique,Men Casual Flat Sneaker Skate Board Brogue Dance Shoes Patent Leather US 5.5-9.5,Rockport Men's Eberdon Loafer - Choose SZ/ColorMen's/Women's Steve Madden Men's Arrowe Sneaker Durable service Comfortable touch Fair price,Asics "Ontisuka Tiger X Tokidoki" California 78 Collab (Size 11US) New gel maxHi-Tec Men's Altitude Lite I Waterproof Charcoal/Warm Grey/Gold Waterproof Shoes,New Calvin Klein Natel Oxford Leather Black Men's Size 7.5 Shoes,Mens British Teal Toe Slip On Night Club Fashion Shoes Stylish 2018 Colored Hot,NEW BALANCE MAN FREE TIME CASUAL SNEAKER SHOES SUEDE LEATHER CODE ART. NM598GGGmen's shoes THOMAS VALMAIN 10 () sneakers brown leather AB805-ESkechers Men's on-The-Go Glide-Premio Boat Shoe - Choose SZ/Color,Mezlan Men's Size 11.5 Sebastian Black Leather Lizard Skin Loafers Shoes SPAIN,NEW NIKE JORDAN AJ V.1 CHUKKA Men's Shoes Size US 10,Stylish Mens Dress party Tassel Formal Business Slip On Loafers Shoes Comfort Sz,Gentlemen/Ladies EDITHACANARES SUEDE CAMEL Moderate price modern International big name,Florsheim Men's Tuscany Bit Slip-On Loafer,Navy,12 D US,Rockport Mens Cabot Plain Toe OxfordWide US- Pick SZ/Color.,New Authentic Men's Clarks Karlock Lane Brown Suede US Size 8,men's shoes BASE LONDON 7 () elegant blue shiny leather BZ419-B,Asics Gel Contend Mens Running sneakers / Shoes - Grey,Stacy Adams Men's Faraday Bit Loafer 24999Man's/Woman's adidas Clima Cool 1 bargain Price reduction Breathable shoes,Roper 09-020-0601-0237 Mens Performance Smooth Leather Slip-On Shoes Round Toe,Cole Haan Sutton Plain PL Venetian Woodbury Grain Loafer Men 9.5 $168 NIB C11740,ADIDAS INIKI RUNNER COLLEGIATE NAVY White Gum Sneakers, Size 9, 2017,Men Casual Shoes Slip On Loafers Driving Shoes Sequins Nightclub Shoes Plus 4g3,Mark Nason Leather Loafers Size 8.5 Vintage Weathered Slip On 67556,Diesel Men Sub-Ways Fashion Shoes Size 10.5MNEW Star Wars Sperry Shoes C3PO R2D2 Men's Cloud Slip On Sneaker Droids Size 10,Allen Edmonds Mens US 11D Black Brown Leather Slip-on Tassel Kiltie Loafers Shoe,