Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047

Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047

Item specifics

Condition:
: An item that has been or previously. See the seller’s listing for full details and ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: Harley-Davidson
Color: Black Style: Motorcycle
Material: Leather US Shoe Size (Men's): 9.5
Euro Size: 41
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Mens Mountain Gear Arrow 2102W-14 Boots Upper Grey Full Grain Leather Upper Boots bb9047

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
TONY LAMA VINTAGE MENS 7.5 D BLACK LEATHER ROUND TOE COWBOY BOOTS ROPERS,Winter Warm Mens Shoes Slip Ons Flats Plush Lined Round Toe Ankle Boots sz 38-48,Red Wing Boots Style EH Electrical Hazard Sz 14D 6" Waterproof - EUC!!!,Genuine British Army Magnum Scorpion Black Assault / Patrol Combat Boots Used,Men's Brown Ostrich Leather Nocona Boots Style C Size 10 E - Fancy Toe CapRockport Toloni Black Leather Ankle Boots Size 9.5,Man's/Woman's Steve Madden Mens 'Eagleyye' Boot Shoe Rich design Various types and styles business,New Mens Columbia "Coretek" Omni-Grip Waterproof Lightweight Hiking Shoes Boots,Mens LL Bean Black Rubber Moc 9M $99retail Made in USA,El General alligator 100 anniversary Leather Men's Cowboy Western Boots 6 D,Steve Madden Mens Overring Plain Toe Chukka Boot Shoes, Black, US 8.5Keen Mens Pittsburgh Leather Waterproof Slip Resistant Steel Toe Work Boots 11,KAMIK Green Waterproof Boots Winter Rain Rubber Garden Men’s 7,Gentleman/Lady Law Pro Boots Queensland Attractive fashion Easy life,Calvin Klein Barker Men's Black Dress Zip Up Ankle Boots Size 9.5 Style F7320,Men Military Tactical Outdoor Ankle Boot Strappy Desert Combat Hiking Army Shoes,LL BEAN MENS VINTAGE LOW BOOTS MOC GUMSHOE BROWN LEATHER ANKLE DUCK HUNTING SZ 9,Stacy Adams MAXIMUS Mens Grey Leather Suede Chukka Boot US size: 7 EUR: 37-38,Chic Men's High Top Ankle Boots Genuine Suede Leather Vintage Mid Heels LeopardI17-DM14 MEN'S SHOES 39 CHELSEA BOOTS DE MICHELE SUEDE GREY MADE IN ITALY,Bar III Men's Zane Canvas Chukka Boots,charcoal,US 8M MSRP:$109.99Columbia Cedervale Pass Espresso Hiking Trail Boots Box Included Worn once 10,Workwear Safety Gear 17-Inch Light Weight Men Small Black Rubber Over-Shoe Boots,Meindl Air Active Desert Boots Size British ARMY COMBAT All Terrain NICE,LL Bean Duck Boots Men's Size 8.5 fit 10 Brown Leather Rubber Maine Rain ShoesWarfield & Grand Nixon 5-Eye Mid Dress Boot, Leather Upper, Black, 8.5, NewMen's Black & Yellow Waterproof & Frost Proof Leather Boots,Dr Marten Mens Kameron Casual Brown Boots Shoes Size 8 US,New Kenneth Cole Unlisted WHOLE NATION Men Boots Sz. 9.5,FLORSHEIM MEN'S BURGUNDY LEATHER SIDE ZIP "BEATLE" BOOTS 9.5 D - EUC,