British Flat Womens Winter Slip On Flat British Heels Real Leather Fur Lining Casual Shoes sz 3c4db9

British Flat Womens Winter Slip On Flat British Heels Real Leather Fur Lining Casual Shoes sz 3c4db9

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: Unbranded
Material: Leather Style: Comfort
Occasion: Casual Country/Region of Manufacture: China
Pattern: Solid Fastening: Slip On
Width: Medium (B, M) Heel Height: Low (3/4 in. to 1 1/2 in.)
US Shoe Size (Women's): 4-8 Heel Type: Cuban
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

British Flat Womens Winter Slip On Flat British Heels Real Leather Fur Lining Casual Shoes sz 3c4db9

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Sexy high stieletto heel womens ladies platform over the knee high boots shoesNEW Dr. Scholl's Women's Turning Booties Black Microfiber Size US 11 W/,Winter Womens Leopard PrintKnitted Stretch Fashion Ankle Boots Pointed Toe ShoesAldo Black Leather Square Toe High Heel Zip Ankle Boots Women's 38/7.5-8,Women Fashion Pointy Toes Ankle Boots Stiletto High Heels New Zip Clubwear Shoes,Retro Women Knee High Boots Velet High Heel Boot Platform Boots Shoes Fashion SZ,Women Fur Zip High Block Heel Ankle Boots Platform Booties Casual Shoe Plus Size2017 Women Winter knee high boots Fur trim Warm Low heel PU Pull on KnightSTEVEN by Steve Madden Women's Valent-c Mule - Choose SZ/colorWomens Girls Candy Punk Goth High Platform Wedge Heel Knee High Boots Shoes size,Sperry top sider Saltwater Hualian Tongue Adaptive Water Proof Duck Boot,Size6 W,Womens Metal Decor Princess Slim Heel Ankle Boots Grace Wedding Stylish ShoesChooka Womens Midtown Strappy Rubber Almond Toe Ankle Cold Black Size 10.0 WUU,Womens Pointy toe Satin Ankle Boots Stilettos Slim Stretchy Casual Sexy shoes,Womens True Meaning Tan Light Brown Leather Side Zip Winter Fashion Boots 7.5,Plus Sz Over The Knee Boots Women Faux Suede Leather High Heel Block Party Shoes,Kensie Women's Ghita Ankle Bootie Black SZ 10 - NIP,Women's Suede High Block Heel Shoes Pointy Toe Fur Trim Zip Winter Ankle boots,Low boots noisette monoprix cuir daim 38 NEUVE,Shiny Ladies Stiletto High Heels Ankle Boots Glitter Stylish Nightclub Zip Shoes,Womens Winter Rivet Stilettos High-heeled shoes Faux Suede Mid-Calf boots PumpsHalogen "Olivia" Dark Brown Leather Knee High Dress Boot Women Size 5.5 MJust Fab Women's Zola Faux Leather Heeled Booties AB4 Black Size 8.5,Women High Stiletto Heels Over the Knee High Boots Stretchy Pull On Casual ShoesWomens Fur Decro Suede Boots Pointed Toe Side Zipper Party High Heel Shoes Yoooc,Women's Mid-calf Suede Knight Boots Stilettos High-Heels Buckle Party Shoes Lit0,BCBG Paris Peep Toe Ankle Boot Size 7.5,Womens High Block heel shoes Round toe Elastic Casual Over Knee High Boots CHIC,Women’s Grey City Wilma Ankle Boots Brown Cognac Size 6 Bootie,VASQUE 7433 Women's 7 M Gore-Tex Waterproof Hiking Outdoor Trail Boots,