Santoni "Auburn" Shoes, Venetian Loafer, Men's Slip-on Shoes, "Auburn" Brown 7US/40EU/6UK 2e0095

Santoni Santoni Santoni Santoni Santoni Santoni Santoni

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: Santoni
Color: Brown US Shoe Size (Men's): 7
Country/Region of Manufacture: Italy Width: Medium (D, M)
Occasion: Casual Style: Loafers & Slip Ons
Euro Size: EUR 40 Material: Leather
UPC: 750896450198
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Santoni "Auburn" Shoes, Venetian Loafer, Men's Slip-on Shoes, "Auburn" Brown 7US/40EU/6UK 2e0095

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Invicta 24197 Womens BLU Quartz Stainless Steel and Silicone Casual Watch,,Cole Haan Zerogrand Perforated Brown Leather Sneaker Oxford Casual Shoes 8M NEW,Eastland Men's Alexander Oxford - Choose SZ/Color,Mizuno sneakers Mizuno 1906 MIZUNO GV87 D1GA1706 Orange X navy,Men real Leather Pointed Toe Dress Formal wedding party Shoes SE5.5-10,Mens Fashion Handmade Multi Color Crystal Glitter Encrusted Oxfords 5548,GENTLER,Johnston & Murphy Fairfield Runoff' Venetian Loafer XC4 11.5 M,Men Genuine Suede High Top Pull on Chelsea Ankle Boot Oxford Outddor Dress ShoesMerrell Mens Hiking Shoes Moab Fst Waterproof Navy J36915,Reef Men's Rover Low Sneaker - Choose SZ/Color,men's shoes MBT 8 / 8,5 () sneakers black leather suede AC340-B,Rockport Work Women's Sailing Club RK673 Shoe - Choose SZ/ColorR - Men's MEPHISTO 'Henri' Chestnut Brown Leather Loafers Size US 10,New Allen Edmonds 6th Avenue Semi Brogue Derby Sz 10.5 D Walnut Brown LeatherGeorgia Boot Men's Georgia Giant Romeo Work Boot Soggy Brown Full Grain Leather,Polo Ralph Lauren Men's Izzah Sneaker - Choose SZ/Color,NIKE Men's Dunk Low Pro Skate Shoe,Gentleman/Lady Rocky RKS0207 Cruiser Casual Chukka Boot fashion Strong value Fashion dynamic,$595 Mens Jimmy Choo "Cash" Velvet Low Top Sneakers Slate Gray 42 US 9,Sperry Top Sider Gold Cup Collection Sport Casual Sneaker Men's Mens 10.5M NIB,RALPH LAUREN MEN'S SHOES HIGH TOP TRAINERS SNEAKERS NEW SOLOMON GREEN 211,3C7 1901 Moccasine Slip On Dress Casual Loafers Suede Men Slides Shoes Size 10M,Camper K300171-001 Mens Neuman - K300171Brown 44 D EU- Choose SZ/Color.,BRAGANO MARIO MEN'S (12M) BROWN WOVEN LEATHER SLIP ON LOAFERS CRAFTED IN ITALY,Clarks 26124588 Mens Sirtis Mix Casual Fashion Sneaker- Choose SZ/Color.DS NIKE 2007 AIR MAX 1 CAMO 9.5 FORCE ATMOS PATTA 90 180 WOVEN HYPERFUSE SAFARIMephisto Hero Walking Sneakers Shoes Black Mens ye6 Size 9.5 M,Bottines boots homme BUNKER noir vielli B918 C Black Shoes,NIKE AIR JORDAN III RETRO BLK / SPORT BLUE 9.5 III V VI VIII X XII XI 2014,Men's Merrell Moab 2 Ventilator Hiking Shoe Black Night J06017,