Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988

Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988

Item specifics

Condition:
: An item that has been used or previously. See the seller’s listing for full details and ... Read moreabout the condition
Boot Shaft Height: Ankle
Style: Booties Brand: Corso Como
Features: Buckle US Shoe Size (Women's): US 9.5
Color: Black Material: Leather
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Corso Como Maiden Bootie Genuine Calf Hair Ankle Bootie Maiden 9.5, Black, Pre-owned 9fd988

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Goth, punk, rock, new Rock women's boots shoes 6.5 Red & Black,SC35 Myrrah Pull On Ankle Booties 678, Toffee, 7 US,WEATHERPROOF Womens Alex Round Toe Ankle Cold Weather Boots,Liz & Co Black Leather Booties Heels Buckle Women's 6.5 Excellent StylishBJ Navy Blue Fabric & Gray Faux Fur Ankel Boots Green Rubber Sole US 7Bare Traps Womens danula Almond Toe Ankle Cold Weather Boots, Taupe, Size 7.0 oz,Giraudon Shoes Women's Sz 37 Brown Cap Toe Leather Ankle Slip On Chelsea Booties,01-70 Women's Naturalizer Haley Ankle Booties size 6.5 M,Nature Breeze Bike-02 Women Leatherette Knee High Lug Sole Zippered Riding BootSbicca Womens Byanca Gray Fringe Ankle Boots Shoes 7.5 Medium (B,M) BHFO 6602Women's Forever Link Natalia 58 Brown Fashion Boots Multiple Sizes Brand New,NEW WOMENS LADIES HIGH HEEL THIGH OVER THE KNEE STRETCH BOOTS SIZE 3-8Women Black Chain Boot Strap Bracelet Skeleton Skull Western Shoe Charm Bling,Madden Girl Womens Combat Taupe Combat Boots Shoes 6.5 Medium (B,M) BHFO 3424,Leather Boots Boxer Women (Size EU:39 US:8.5) - Bought 82 EurosVIA SPIGA SIZE 5 KNEE HIGH BLACK LEATHER FASHION BOOTS,Lucky Brand Womens shaynah Closed Toe Ankle Fashion BootsMIA Black Zip Knee High Riding Fashion Boots Size 7 D Style CassidyBorn BOC Womens Brown Suede Ankle Boots Size 10 M Leather Western Booties clogs,Trotters Blizzard Bordeaux Womens Snow Boot-size 8.5Lamo Savoy Suede Leather/Faux Fur Strap Detail Fold-Over Cuff Tall Boots Womens,Via Spiga Black Satin Zip Boots High Heel Size 7 Made In Italy,SALE Ladies Black Microfibre Faux Fur Lined Boots WARM COSY X4002,Kirkland Signature Shearling Youth Sheepskin Boots Purple Size 4 M US Kids,Kirkland Signature Ladies' Shearling Zipper Boot- VARIOUS SIZE/COLOR- FREESHIP @,NEW Women Forever Young Couture Black Faux Leather Faux Snakeskin Knee High Boot,Ann Taylor Women’s Mid-Calf Brown Soft Leather Boots Heel Zipper 7.5 M,Madden Girl by Steve Madden Womens Kest Black Ankle Boots 8.5 Medium (B,M) 6924,Easy Spirit BELA Women's Black Suede Boots Weather Resistant Size 7M Chunky Sole,ACME Tan Leather Heeled Harness Short Cowboy Western Boots Size 7.5 M Style 7401,