Christian Louboutin Black Pigalle 42 Follies Pumps Size EU 42 Pigalle (Approx. US 12) Regular (M, B) 7d631c

Christian Louboutin Black Pigalle 42 Follies Pumps Size EU 42 Pigalle (Approx. US 12) Regular (M, B) 7d631c
Gently used
  • Scuff on soles

This item has visible signs of wear

Pigalle Follies Shiny Napa Leather
Heel Height: 100mm
Worn 3x
Includes: Dust bag (2) / Original Box

I wear a 10US & 42 Euro is a PERFECT fit!

NN Listed by:  Nicole N. Ask a Question

Brand:

Christian Louboutin

Color:

Black

Heel Height:

High 3"-4"

Heel Style:

Slim

Size:

EU 42 (Approx. US 12)

Style/Collection:

Pigalle Follies

Width:

Regular (M, B)

Type:

Pumps

Style Tags:

Christian Louboutin Pumps


Join/Renew
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Christian Louboutin Black Pigalle 42 Follies Pumps Size EU 42 Pigalle (Approx. US 12) Regular (M, B) 7d631c

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Alexander McQueen White/Nude Oversized Sneakers Sneakers Size EU 38 (Approx. US 8) Regular (M, B)Givenchy Black Ss18 Lowtop Boxing Pumps Size EU 36.5 (Approx. US 6.5) Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Black Rolando Patent Leather Pumps Size US 6 Regular (M, B),Manolo Blahnik Red Bb Pumps Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B)Lanvin Spectator Mary Jane Pumps Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B),Charlotte Olympia Black/Red Charles Daphne Platforms Size EU 35.5 (Approx. US 5.5) Regular (M, B),Sergio Rossi Brown Sku: 135 / Model: A47240 Mafh53 2144 210 Pumps Size US 5 Regular (M, B),Jimmy Choo Red Patent 247 Crown Pumps Size US 7,Christian Louboutin Nude Beige Decollete 868 100 Mm Fit 10/ / 9 Pumps Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B),Sergio Rossi Brown Sku: 135 / Model: A47240 Mafh53 2144 210 Pumps Size US 5 Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Black Lady Peep Pumps Size US 11,Christian Louboutin Pina Spike 120 Pony Maxiz/Sat/Suede Pumps Size US 8Salvatore Ferragamo Brown Leopard Scotty Pipi Ballet Flats Size EU 37 (Approx. US 7) Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin White Pigalle Follies 100 Red Cherry Cherise Heels 37 Pumps Size US 7 Regular (M, B),Giuseppe Zanotti Coral Harmony Patent Leather Sandals Size US 10 Regular (M, B),Valentino Black Garavani Rockstud Rolling Noir Leather Kitten-heel Pumps Size US 5 Regular (M, B),Valentino Black/Blush Garavani / Vsz 403 1 38 Flats Size US 8 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black Lady Booton 150 Platform Peep Booties Pumps Size US 9 Regular (M, B),Saint Laurent Printed Flats Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin White Maggie Platform Pumps Size EU 40.5 (Approx. US 10.5) Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Black "Flo 120" Patent Leather Sling Back. Pumps Size US 10.5 Regular (M, B),Christian Louboutin Survivita 100 KID/Specchio Heel,Christian Louboutin Red Coralta Mia 100mm Glitter Studded Heart Point Toe Sz. Euro Pumps Size EU 37 (Approx. US 7) Regular (M, B)Christian Louboutin Black Platform Pumps Size US 8,Giambattista Valli Boots/Booties Size US 8 Regular (M, B)Saint Laurent Black Men's High Top Sneakers Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B)Valentino Black Rockstud Flats Size US 5.5 Regular (M, B),Zero + Maria Cornejo Grey Evi Bootie Sneakers Sneakers Size US 5.5 Regular (M, B)Manolo Blahnik Pretati Pumps Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B),Valentino Black Rockstub Flats Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B)