Brooks Running Women's Ghost Shoe 11 Size: 9.0B Shoe Ghost wide 7a5172

Brooks Running Women's Ghost Shoe 11 Size:  9.0B Shoe Ghost wide 7a5172

Item specifics

New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Product Line: Brooks Ghost
Style: Low Top Brand: Brooks
Material: Leather/Synthetic US Shoe Size (Women's): 9.0
Width: Medium (B, M) UPC: Does not apply
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Brooks Running Women's Ghost Shoe 11 Size: 9.0B Shoe Ghost wide 7a5172

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging

Published July 31, 2017
L'Artiste by Spring Step Women's Chino,NEW Nike ZOOM VOMERO 9 "Blue GRAPHITE" Wmn USsz: 7.5 running shoe 642196-401,Life Stride Women's Parigi Pump Black Synthetic,325213 037 Nike AIR MAX 90 Womens SZ 12 = Men's SZ 10.5 NO BOX TOP,adidas Energy Boost Women's Shoes CG3056 Black,Hoka One One Women's Conquest 2 W Neon Coral/Citrus Running Shoe 5 B(M) US,Men's/Women's CONVERSE All Star Lift B Pink for you to choose First quality negotiation,Man's/Woman's Propet Women's Washable Walker Shoes D(W) Various styles high quality Various,Skechers Women's Go Walk Lite-15433 Boat Shoe,Kamik Women's Jessie Rainboot Charcoal Rubber Waterproof,New Under Armour 1285481 005 SpeedForm Gemini Black Women's Running Shoes 8 US,adidas I-5923 Iniki Runner BA9998 Womens Trainers~Originals~to 7.5 Only,Cole Haan Womens Coraliesam Low Top Slip On Fashion Blue/Black Size 6.0Mizuno Womens Wave Inspire 13 2A, Blue/Pink/White, Size 6,NIB Skechers Sport Women's D'Lites Memory Foam Gray/White Knit Sneaker Size 7 M,KEEN Womens 1015389 Raven/Gargoyle Trail / Hiking Shoes Size 6 (417178),PUMA Women's Vikky Platform Velcro Sneaker - Choose SZ/ColorNike Air Max 90 PRM 2016 Quilt Green Running Shoes Womens 9.5 RARE 443817 300,La Sportiva Womens Ultra Raptor GTX Waterproof Trail Running Shoes US 9.5,Nike Zoom Rival MD 8 - Women's Polarized Blue/White/Thunder Blue/Black 06559410,Brand New NIKE AIR ZOOM 90 IT GOLF WOMENS SIZE 8.5 INFRARED 844648 100 AIRMAX,833860-101 Nike Women Tennis Classic Ultra Flyknit White Wolf Grey,Women's Adidas Ultra Boost X Running Athletic Shoes BB1693 Tactile Blue Size 11,?? COLE HAAN ZEROGRAND WATERPROOF WOMENS SHOES W06591 NEW SIZE 8 BSkechers Women's Cleo Sincere Ballet Flat Black FlatsShoes Under Armour 3020243 Intent Woman Black Running Training Sneakers Gym SporAdidas Hamburg Women Trainers in Clear Brown & Off White BB5110Life Stride Women's Adley Ankle Bootie Taupe Synthetic,Vans Authentic Platform 2.0 Maroon White Womens Suede TrainersMen's/Women's Nike Women's Ballistec Advantage Tennis Shoe Best-selling worldwide Attractive fashion Seasonal hot sale,