adidas Women's W Adipure Choose DC Golf Shoe - Choose Adipure SZ/Color b856d0

adidas Women's W Adipure Choose DC Golf Shoe - Choose Adipure SZ/Color b856d0

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: adidas
Style: Golf Manufacturer: adidas
Size Type: Regular MPN: 696404871072
US Shoe Size (Women's): Multiple Variations Model: 696404871072
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

adidas Women's W Adipure Choose DC Golf Shoe - Choose Adipure SZ/Color b856d0

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Penny Loves Kenny Women's Ritz Glitter Pump Gold Glitter Fabric PumpsConverse Women CTAS Dainty Canvas Color OX 553371C Sneakers Purple RRP,Puma Ignite Dual Wns Quarry White Women Running Shoes Trainers Sneaker 189148-07,Skechers Women's GOwalk Joy Slip-On Shoe Turquoise,Puma Ignite Limitless Suede Women’s Training Shoes 190593 01 Black Size 10,Camper Peu Cami 20848 Womens Leather Shoes Size 4-8,Adidas Originals Superstar The FARM Company White Black Women BB7777 SZ 6,WOMEN'S/JUNIOR SHOES SNEAKERS PUMA JL BATMAN BASKET JR [364004 01],Nike WMNS Lunarglide 7 VII womens running run sneakers NEW chalk blue black,Nike Wmns Air Huarache Run Triple Black Women Running Shoes Sneakers 634835-012ASICS Women's Gel-Exalt 3 Running Shoe - Choose SZ/Color,Adidas Women's Stella McCartney Adipure White S81102,Mr/Ms ASICS GEL-Ziruss - Blue - Womens sell Beautiful List of explosions,Converse Zakim Low Canvas Trainers Womens Yellow/White Sports Trainers Sneakers,Ahnu Women's Taraval-W, Black, 8 M USWmns Nike Free RN 2017 Run Anthracite Silver Women Running Shoes 880840-006,Chuck Taylor EGRET Square Metal Studs Zipper Converse Ankle Hi Shoes Wm 8.5 DISC,NIKE WOMENS AIR HUARACHE RUN ULTRA SZ 5 BLACK WHITE 819151 005,NEW adidas Pureboost X AQ6680 Womens Shoes Trainers Sneakers SALE,crocs Women's Busy Day Strappy Wedge W Pump, Black/Black, W8 M USADIDAS SUPERSTAR WOMEN AC7162 WHITE/BURGUNDY WOMEN US SZ 6.5,Nike Lunar Apparent Women's Running Shoe 908998 001 Size 10,Nine West Women's Sophie Denim Walking Shoe - Choose SZ/Color,PUMA Womens Fierce Gold Cross-Trainer Shoe- Pick SZ/Color.,PUMA Women's Puma Platform Mid OW High Top Puma Black/Puma Black High TopsWomen's Nike Air Max Thea Running Shoes 599409-417,Nike Air Force 1 Flyknit Low Women's Shoes Size 7 [820256 004]Men/Women R' Evolution Sneaker Black 173166 Attractive and durable Modern and stylish fashion As of the latest model,NIB Cole Haan Women's ZeroGrand Slip-On Sneakers Grey / Yellow Size 10 $178,NEW 833477-100 GS GIRL'S YOUTH NIKE AIR MAX 90 FB WHITE BLACK sz 5.5Y WOMENS 7,