adidas Women's W Adipure Choose DC Golf Shoe - Choose Adipure SZ/Color b856d0

adidas Women's W Adipure Choose DC Golf Shoe - Choose Adipure SZ/Color b856d0

Item specifics

New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: adidas
Style: Golf Manufacturer: adidas
Size Type: Regular MPN: 696404871072
US Shoe Size (Women's): Multiple Variations Model: 696404871072
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

adidas Women's W Adipure Choose DC Golf Shoe - Choose Adipure SZ/Color b856d0

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging

Published July 31, 2017
Reebok Women's Plus Lite 2.0 Sneaker, - Choose SZ/ColorConverse Chuck Taylor All Star Platform White Ivory Women Shoes Sneakers 558914C,Fila Womens Memory Perpetual Ft Running Shoe- Pick SZ/ roshe run print women running crossing shoes linen/cargo khaki/Mercury grey,adidas Originals WMNS EQT Racing ADV women lifestyle NEW CP9677,New SUPERGA 2790 Linea Up And Down - Green Capulet Olive,adidas Duramo Lite Trainers Womens Navy/Wht/Pink Sneakers Sports Shoes Footwear,Nike Women’s Air Huarache Run Ultra Size 6.5 BR 833292 800 Crimson Orange Pink,Nike Women's Delta Force High AC Rare Color Combo Sample Shoes new SZ 7',adidas Originals Women's Superstar Tracktop, - Choose SZ/ColorPony Women Athletic Shoes Size 8 Euro 39 Ivory Green Style S502NW Unique Rare,NEW Reebok INSTAPUMP Fury OG Disney JB Jungle Book Gold Metallic SZ 8.5 (AQ9213),Nike Air Trainer Max '91 Anthracite/Ice Blue Denim Bo Jackson 311122-041DIADORA WOMAN CASUAL SPORTS SNEAKER SHOES SYNTHETIC CODE 501.170477 01 N-92,Men/Women Reebok Face Stockholm Silver 8.5 Women’s Diverse new design Pleasant appearance SimpleNIKE AIR BOOM II CHEER WOMEN WHITE NEUTRAL GREY 395749-101 SIZE 6.5 & 8.5Nine West Womens Palyla Leather Fashion Sneaker- Pick SZ/Color.,New adidas Performance Women's Sneaker Pure Boost X TR 2 Sneakers Size 8.5,Nike Free 5.0 Tr Fit Fitness Women's Shoes Size 9.5,Nike Womens Roshe One - 844994 002NEW Urban Outfitters K Swiss rose gold Metallic Leather Aged Foil Sneakers US 9,Walking Cradles Women's Pasha Quarter Strap Sandal Black Textured Multi,Nike Shoes Women's 7 White Gray Blue Air Swing Tennis 2008 Vintage Sample Rare,Clarks Women's Arla Shaylie Slingback Black Elastic,Asics Women's Gel-Cumulus 18 Aquarium/Flash Coral/Blue Jewel T6C8N-3906,SALE ASCIS GEL LYTE III 3 COCKATOO GREEN BEIGE TEAL H6W7N 4747 WOMENS WMNSNike Zoom All Out Flyknit Women Running Training Shoe Wolf Grey Black 845361 003,Jack Rogers Women's Dylan Waterproof Bootie Oak Waterproof Suede Waterproof,Women's Merrell ZOE SOJOUM KNIT 02 BERING SEA BLUE WITH BLUE STRAP Shoes size 7,Converse x Miley Cyrus Chuck Taylor All Star Black 162234C Black Authentic,