New II Cole Haan Jennica Slip-On II New Sneakers women's sz 7.5 aafb10

New II Cole Haan Jennica Slip-On II New Sneakers women's sz 7.5 aafb10

Item specifics

New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: Cole Haan Jennica Slip-On II Sneakers women's sz 7
US Shoe Size (Women's): 7.5 Style: Comfort
Heel Height: Low (3/4 in. to 1 1/2 in.) Color: snake
Width: Medium (B, M) Material: Leather
Heel Type: Cuban UPC: Does not apply
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

New II Cole Haan Jennica Slip-On II New Sneakers women's sz 7.5 aafb10

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging

Published July 31, 2017
adidas Performance Women's Edge Lux w Running-Shoes 8 B(M) US,DIADORA HERITAGE Mens Womens Sneakers Shoes TRIDENT EVO Green Suede Trainers,Skechers Shoes – Empire Round Up black/silver,WOMENS NIKE SF AF1 AIR FORCE 1 MID SZ 6.5 ELEMENTAL GOLD FLAX GUM AA3966 700Converse 143900C LP Mid Sneakers trainers eglantine 178325,Puma Creeper Velvet Glacier Gray Rihanna Fenty 364466 03 Women's SZ 8,New Vince Caden Leather Sneakers Cream Woodsmoke Women’s Size 8 $250 RetailAdidas Performance Womens Galaxy Elite W Running Shoe (- Choose SZ/Color.,Men's/Women's NEW JUST CAVALLI WOMENS SNEAKERS Guarantee quality and quantity Bright colors Valuable boutique,Vans X Karl Lagerfeld Classic Slip On Black K Quilt Women's Size: 8.5,$160 Womens Size 9.5 ASICS Gel Kayano 25 Running Shoes In Black Blue,Fenty Puma By Rihanna Women Bow Creeper Sandal pink pink tint oatmeal SZ 8,New Balance Stability 860 V5 Running Narrow Women's Shoes,Propet Women's TravelActiv Mary Jane Fashion Sneaker Silver 11 W US,ICEBERG GILMAR Italy Women Low Sneaker Suede Patent Leather Black Gray Eu39 Us9New Balance Women's Cruz V1 Fresh Foam Running ShoeReebok Women's CL Leather Spp Fashion Sneaker - Choose SZ/Color,Man's/Woman's Salomon Women's Sense Ride Running Shoes Rich design a variety of Caramel, gentle,Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 34 Shield Black Orange 3M Obsidian 907328-001 Size 11.5Adidas Energy Boost CG3969 Running Shoes Women Size 9 New,New Balance Women's WL999GMT Shoes NEW AUTHENTIC Navy/ Aqua WL999GMTNew Nike Air Max 90 Black/Black-Cool Grey/White 325213-037 Women's Size 8,Nike Free 5.0+ Laf Running Women's Shoes Size 5.5Converse All Star LEATHER HI Size 35 Sneakers trainers Chucks Ladies,Puma Suede Classic Womens 355462-77 Iron Gate Grey Winsome Orchid Shoes Size 5.5,ASICS GEL-CRAZE TR WOMENS PREMIUM RUNNING/SPORTS SHOES/SNEAKERS/TRAINERS,ASICS Dynamis Athletic Sneaker - Women's Size 9.5 - Gray,Demonia Women's Scene 20 Mary Jane Black Vegan Leather Mary JanesKeds Women's Kickstart HI Metallic Linen Sneaker - Choose SZ/Color,Nike Wmns Internationalist JCRD MLBRRY BLACK 705215-501 NSW floral liberty Sz 9.,