DSQUARED2 HOLLYWOOD SHOES RETAIL SIZE 43 BLACK RETAIL SHOES PRICE $699 21be08

DSQUARED2 HOLLYWOOD SHOES RETAIL SIZE 43 BLACK RETAIL SHOES PRICE $699 21be08DSQUARED2 HOLLYWOOD SHOES RETAIL SIZE 43 BLACK RETAIL SHOES PRICE $699 21be08DSQUARED2 HOLLYWOOD SHOES RETAIL SIZE 43 BLACK RETAIL SHOES PRICE $699 21be08DSQUARED2 HOLLYWOOD SHOES RETAIL SIZE 43 BLACK RETAIL SHOES PRICE $699 21be08

Item specifics

Condition:
: An item that has been or previously. See the seller’s listing for full details and ... Read moreabout the condition
Material: Leather
US Shoe Size (Men's): 9 Modified Item: No
Color: Black Country/Region of Manufacture: Italy
Euro Size: EUR 43 Style: FASHION
Brand: Dsquared2
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

DSQUARED2 HOLLYWOOD SHOES RETAIL SIZE 43 BLACK RETAIL SHOES PRICE $699 21be08

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Lucasarts LP-40018C-01 Lucien Piccard Mens Triomf Quartz Stainless Steel andRARE Vans Mens Kyle Walker Pro Real Skateboards Black True Blue Size 7.5 NWT,Cole Haan Grand Motion C27738 Woven Stitchlite Marine Bluefish Mens Sneaker 11,AUTHENTIC POLO RALPH LAUREN MEN’S LEATHER SNEAKERS SHOES 10.5D NIB RLITE CUSHING,Daniele Alessandrini Shoes Sneaker -40% Made Italy Man White F7165KL4583621-49KEEN mens water hiking sport sandals 11-11.5mALEJANDRO INGELMO Mens Size 7 D Black Patent Leather Sneaker Excellentasics Men's Shoes 635389 Black 25.5cm,Panama Jack Mens Brown Flip-Flops Sandals NWT Size L 10-11,Fendi Karlito Men's High Top Sneakers Leather Pony Tail Black White 8 $1400,Havaianas Men's Top Mix Sandal Petroleum, Petroleum, Size 13.0,Rockport Mens Coastalcreek DarkBrown Fisherman Sandals Size 12 (396844),Men's/Women's MONCLER TG42 Easy to use Reliable performance fine,NW Converse Chuck Taylor Andy Warhol Campbell Soup Low Shoes 147054C Mens 13,Piloti Mens Superstrada Leather Driving Shoes - Black - Size 9.5 - BRAND NEWLacoste Graduate Fashion Shoes - White - Mens - 11,$230 OVATTO Brown Black Leather Ankle Boots Sneakers Men Shoes NEW COLLECTION,Mozo Notte Black Men's Work Shoe Size 10.5,Havaianas Brazil Logo Men's Flip Flops Sandals All sizes Colors,ECCO Track II Low Gore-Tex Hiking Brown Shoes kt19 size 44 US 10,DR SCHOLLS MEN'S CASUAL SLIP-ON SHOE,Chaco Z/1 Classic Sandal Green Black Sport Shoe Walking Water Size 10 Athletic,BORN Chamberlain Sandal Men's 13 Safari Taupe Leather fishermen sport,New Prada Men's Black Shoes Spazzolato Rois Oxfords Size 10 Calzature Uomo Dress,Men's Wembley Heritage Tan Flip Flops Thong Sandals 71WE680011 Sz.M(8-9),2017 New Spring Summer Men's Casual Shoes Cheap chaussure homme Korean Breathabljo ghost Men's shoes size () (US 12) ret $545,adidas Adilette Cloudfoam Men's Slide Sandals AQ1703 NAVY,New G.H. Bass Gino Men Loafer Braided Navy 12 Driving Shoes Leather Suede Red,Pikolinos San Lorenzo M1C-3036 Black Mens Leather Loafers Slip-on Shoes,