Invicta Quartz 23080 Mens S1 Rally Quartz Invicta Stainless Steel Casual Watch, 105dd9

Invicta Quartz 23080 Mens S1 Rally Quartz Invicta Stainless Steel Casual Watch, 105dd9

Item specifics

New with box: A brand-new, unused, and un item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
UPC: 0886678281848
Color: blue Brand: Invicta
Size Type: Regular Model: 23080
Material Type: stainless-steel MPN: 23080
EAN: 0886678281848
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Invicta Quartz 23080 Mens S1 Rally Quartz Invicta Stainless Steel Casual Watch, 105dd9

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging

Published July 31, 2017
Men Women Casual Sandals Hollow out Jelly Breathable Slip on Water Beach shoesBacco Bucci Men's Enrico Black Loafers casual slip-on Shoes 12 M NEW!,Man's/Woman's Bottega Veneta Sneakers Shoes (117852 the most convenient Settlement Price Human border,New ALDO Men's Flip Flops Small Heel Rubber Outsole Solid Black Size: 11,Keen Mens Flint Low Steel Toe Waterproof Leather Safety Work Shoes Size 7,GBX Men's Sentaur Fisherman Sandal, Light Gray, Size 7.0,Tommy Hilfiger High Top Brown Sneaker Men's Szs. 9.5-11,Rick Owens Geobasket Sneakers High-Top 037,436 Copper (78964,YEEZY ADIDAS c.2017 "Boost 350 V2 Beluga 2.0" KANYE WEST Gray Knit Sneakers NIB,Man's/Woman's TONGS GANDYS TAILLE 35/36 NEUF service Order welcome Excellent function,NEW Nike Kawa Men's Shower Sandals Slides,Havaianas - WHITE Flip Flops / Thongs / Sandals - Male / Female (FREE POST AUS!),Lanvin Rubberized Mesh & Calfskin High-Top Sneaker (Mens 7UK/8US),Clarks Men's Triflow Form Grey Nubuck Sporty Casual Shoes 26125948,PHILIPPE MODEL MEN'S SHOES LEATHER TRAINERS SNEAKERS NEW PARIS WHITE BB8,Zanzara Men's Encore Fashion Sneaker White Size 10.0,F0 NEW BALLY Brown Leather Waltec Strap Driver Slip On Loafer Shoes Size US 10PRADA America's Cup PS 0906 Sneakers Trainers Black Leather & Mesh sz 10/ US 11,BRUNE BLACK LEATHER HALD BROGUE WINGTIP MEN FORMAL SHOES (VNGS-060-01),Sanuk Brumeister Primo Black Beer Cozy Flip Flops Sandals Mens US Size 11 MNEW Mens Flip Flops Size Large 10 - 11 Black Blue Sandals Cloth Straps PoolBalenciaga 17Aw S Trainers Low-Cut Sneakers Shoes (23060,AA2517 021 AIR JORDAN HYDRO 7 VII SANDAL SLIDE BLACK WHITE GOLD WINGS 8-13,HOGAN MEN'S SHOES LEATHER TRAINERS SNEAKERS NEW H357 BLUE DBB,New Authentic Valentino Garavani Studded Men Slip-On Leather Shoes Black 8 $845,Rockport Mens Black Flip Flops Size 11 (414993),DS 2010 NIKE FOAMPOSITE PEWTER 10 PENNY I II III 1 2 3 PIPEN FORCE MAX 180,men's shoes BRIMARTS 7 () sneakers green textile AG82-B,Martin Margiela men's white leather future italian sneakers Size US 7 -Men's cock embroidery Round Toe Slip On Loafers Casual Suede Shoes Plus size,