VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159

VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and un item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Shoe Size: In Stock
Brand: In Stock Upper Material: In Stock
Main Colour: In Stock EAN: Does not apply
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

VTA-1330: Calf Vass Shoes - Black Calf VTA-1330: - US8.5 - EU41.5 - K Last f72159

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
DOLCE & GABBANA Raffia Sneakers Shoes SCILLA Bordeaux Red Sneaker 05205,Emporio Armani Sneaker Sz. 42 Leather Man Beige X4X220XL187-A001 MAKE OFFERHender Scheme Top Us7Blk Industrial Products 10 Es Yes Shoes (49121,Keen Men's Size 9 Brown Waterproof Leather Sport Sandals,mens reef sandals size 9 - Brown,Invicta Mens Speedway Stainless Steel Watch W/ Black Band,New Balance Men's MID627 Steel-Toe Work Shoe / SIZE 7.5 X-TRA WIDE ( 4E ) BLACK,Clarks Men's Black Oily Leather Cotrell Walk Sneakers 6045 Size 9.5 M,Allen Edmonds Men's Casual Leather Shoes Size 9.5 fits 10.5 navy blueAdidas Men's Adissage Slide Sandal, White/Gold Leather, 6 M US,Mens Rusty Wild Slide Dark Chocolate Sandal Flip Flop,Women’s Kadee II Flip Sandal women 9 men 7,DS NIKE 1997 AIR FOAMPOSITE PENNY OG 7 FLIGHTPOSITE PRO MAX 90 1 FORCE FLIGHT,Montego Dosen Skechers Mens Lifestyle 65325 - Choose SZ/Color.,NEW JOHN VARVATOS USA BEDFORD TROOPER HIGH TOP LEATHER SNEAKERS 11.5,Adidas Y-3 Yohji Yamamoto QR Run Boost AQ5496 Limited EditionMen's/Women's Fresh Beer Gold Flip Flops Sandals Fine processing cheapest negotiation,Boss Hugo Boss Brown Dress Shoe Oxford Brown Size 9 ! ERNEMAT,Donald J Pliner Veep Men's Size 8 Slip On Tassel Loafer Driving Moccasins Gray,NWT MENS THE WHO THONG FLIP FLOPS,Palladium Men's Pampa Cuff WP LUX Leather Boots, Black,KENNETH COLE SLIP-ON LOAFER ( COGNAC ) NEW WITHOUT BOX SIZE 11.M,NEW Giuseppe Zanotti Metal Accent Tan Suede Low Top Sneakers Sz 8 Mens 41 EUR,Mens Urban Beach Insignia Rubber Flip Flops - Blue or Green,Mens PU Leather Sandals Flip Flops Slip On Summer Beach Holiday White SlippersMens Closed Toe Sandals Summer Casual Shoes Fisherman Sandals Shoes Sport 2018,MEN'S CROCS SANDALS LITERIDE BLACK/SLATE GREY SIZE 11,Clarks Fisherman Hiking Sandals Brown Leather Made in Italy 37586 Mens Size 11 MConverse All Star Chuck '70 Ox in Green/Black 161443C BNIB Free Shipping,Diesel Men's D-String Plus High-Top Silver/Black Sneakers Shoes Sz: 8.5,