Nike Lunarconverge Blue/White 852462-400 Blue/White Lunarconverge Men's Size 10.5 bf7375

Nike Lunarconverge Blue/White 852462-400 Blue/White Lunarconverge Men's Size 10.5 bf7375
The classic shoe type, using the top talents, fine craftsmanship; simple but not lacking in fashion, the most simple way to interpret the fashion paradigm.
This is a cropped closeup of a senior couple enjoying a game of chess

Nike Lunarconverge Blue/White 852462-400 Blue/White Lunarconverge Men's Size 10.5 bf7375

Women’s cognitive functioning past middle age may be affected by the degree of gender equality in the country they live in, according to new findings from Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

“This research is a first attempt to shed light on important, but understudied, adverse consequences of gender inequality on women’s health in later life,” explains researcher Eric Bonsang of University Paris-Dauphine and Columbia University, lead author on the study. “It shows that women living in gender-equal countries have better cognitive test scores later in life than women living in gender-unequal societies. Moreover, in countries that became more gender-equal over time, women’s cognitive performance improved relative to men’s.”

Bonsang and colleagues Vegard Skirbekk (Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Columbia University) and Ursula Staudinger (Columbia University) had noticed that the differences in men’s and women’s scores on cognitive tests varied widely across countries. In countries in Northern Europe, for example, women tend to outperform men on memory tests, while the opposite seems to be true in several Southern European countries.

“This observation triggered our curiosity to try to understand what could cause such variations across countries,” says Bonsang.

While economic and socioeconomic factors likely play an important role, Bonsang, Skirbekk, and Staudinger wondered whether sociocultural factors such as attitudes about gender roles might also contribute to the variation in gender differences in cognitive performance around the globe. They hypothesized that women who live in a society with more traditional attitudes about gender roles would likely have less access to opportunities for education and employment and would, therefore, show lower cognitive performance later in life compared with men of the same age.

The researchers analyzed cognitive performance data for participants between the ages of 50 and 93, drawn from multiple nationally representative surveys including the US Health and Retirement Study; the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; and the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. Together, the surveys provided data for a total of 27 countries.

All of the surveys include an episodic memory task to measure cognitive performance. Participants heard a list of 10 words and were asked to recall as many as they could immediately; in some of the surveys, participants again recalled as many words as they could after a delay. Additionally, some of the surveys included a task intended to assess executive function in which participants named as many animals as they could within 1 minute.

To gauge gender-role attitudes, the researchers focused on participants’ self-reported agreement with the statement, “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.”

Overall, the data showed considerable variability in gender differences in cognitive performance across countries. In some countries, women outperformed men—the female advantage in cognitive performance was highest in Sweden. In other countries, however, men outperformed women—the male advantage was highest in Ghana.

As the researchers hypothesized, increasingly traditional gender-role attitudes were linked with decreasing cognitive performance among women across countries. In other words, women in countries with less traditional attitudes were likely to have better cognitive performance later in life relative to women in more traditional countries.

Bonsang and colleagues noted that changes in gender-role attitudes within a country over time were associated with changes in women’s cognitive performance relative to men.

Although the data are correlational in nature, several more detailed analyses point toward a causal relationship. These analyses suggest that gender-role attitudes may play a notable role in important outcomes for women across different countries, the researchers argue.

“These findings reinforce the need for policies aiming at reducing gender inequalities as we show that consequences go beyond the labor market and income inequalities,” says Bonsang. “It also shows how important it is to consider seemingly intangible influences, such as cultural attitudes and values, when trying to understand cognitive aging.”

“In future work, we plan to disentangle the effect of gender-role attitudes on gender difference in cognition—via the impacts of those attitudes on institutions, politics and labor market characteristics—from the impact of beliefs of women associated with gender-role attitudes,” Bonsang says.

We use data from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Release 2.6.0, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Release 19, the RAND Corporation Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Version N, and Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. The SHARE project has been primarily funded by the European Commission (see http://www.share-project.org for the full list of funders). The ELSA project has been funded by a consortium of U.K. government departments and the U.S. National Institute on Aging (see http://www.elsa-project.ac.uk/funders for the full list of funders). The HRS project is funded by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. National Institute on Aging


Published July 31, 2017
Nike Blazer Purple, Mustard, Fusion Pink Suede Size 8.5,Nib Men's Nike Lebron Soldier XI SFG Basketball Shoes 897646 101 White, BlueNike SF AIR FORCE 1 MID Men's Shoes - 917753 Dessert Moss/Gum Brown size 10Nike Mercurial Superfly VI Pro FG Men New Football Soccer Cleats NFL Ronaldo,Nike CK Racer Running Shoes Blue Jay / Black / Navy Men's Size 13NIKE Vapor Speed Low Football Cleats 668854-119 Blue/White Size 12,NIKE Men's Flex RN 2017 Running Shoe Black/Volt/Wolf Grey Size 10.5 M USNike Air Jordan High Black White Gold Gum Sole MENS NEW Size 9 TrunnerMen's Nike College Air Presto X DB Size 9.5,NIKE LEBRON ZOOM SOLDIER VIII 653648-100 White Black Men Basketball Shoes 17 NEW,AIR JORDAN XVII 17 2002 OG ORIGINAL COLLEGE BLUE WHITE BLACK SZ 10.5,Nike Train Prime Iron DF Binary Blue NIB Size US 14 Men 832219 404 No Box Lid,Nike DUNK HIGH PRO SB Smoke Ion Pink Baroque Brown Discounted (240) Men's ShoesNEW Nike Zoom Fly - Black/Gray Running, Cross Training (Men's Multiple Sizes),2008 Nike Air Max 360 III Silver Lime Green Size 7.5 Vintage,Nike Men's Size 9 SB Stefan Janoski Max Mid Shoes 807507 507 Royal Blue/Navy,NIB NIKE Mens 9.5 AIR ZOOM SPIRIDON '16 926955 105 LIFESTYLE RUNNING SHOES,Nike Zoom Spiridon Ultra Triple White Running Training Shoes Womens Size 7,Nike Duel Racer Khaki Medium Olive Men's Running Shoe Sneaker 918228 201,NIKE Hyper Chase 749554-402 Navy White Blue Silver Basketball Men shoe SZ 15,Nike Air Force 1 '07 University Red White 315122-612 Size 12,NIKE AIR SB ERIC KOSTON 1 Sneakers Mens 10 Black Athletic Skate Shoes 833446-001Nike Air Jordan VI 6 Retro Black/Red-Blue-Graphite Pistons 384664-001 SZ 9MEN'S NIKE LUNAREPIC LOW FLYNIT 2 DEEP ROYAL BLUE 863779 400 SIZE 11 NEW,Mens Micheal Jordan B, Fly Max Orange Gym Red White Sz 10.5,Nike SB Dunk Mid Pro Men's skateboard shoes AJ1445 200 Multiple sizes,Nike Air Jordan Jumpman Pro Shake White Deep Red DS OG VTG Size 8 136094-161Nike SB Dunk Low Premium 'Quarter Snacks' 9.5 Black Suede Skate Shoes RARE!,2012 Nike Lebron 9 IX Dunkman SZ 11 ( 469764-006 ),NIKE AIR GRIFFEY MAX 1 FLAX SAIL 354912 200 WHEAT,